The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of online learning in K–12 schools and to establish base data for more extensive future studies. Issues related to planning, operational difficulties, and online learning providers were also examined. This study was based on a national survey of American school district chief administrators during the 2005-2006 academic year. It is one of the first studies to collect data on and compare fully online and blended learning (part online and part traditional face-to-face instruction) in K-12 schools. The distinction between fully online and blended learning is a most important refinement of previous studies on this topic. This study also notes that a number of states including Florida and Michigan have established very progressive school reform policies with regard to K-12 online learning.